Choosing less risky sexual behaviors, taking medicines to prevent and treat HIV, and using condoms with lubricants are all highly effective ways to reduce the risk of getting or transmitting HIV. Although this is not perfect protection, we still strongly encourage vaccination for health prevention; especially for at-risk groups. Only certain body fluids—blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk—from a person who has HIV can transmit HIV. Many men who have sex with men have experienced homophobic stigma, discrimination and violence. We are not able to acknowledge receipt of emails. Key messages It is important that HIV prevention messaging includes rectal fluid as one of the fluids that can contain and transmit HIV. Anal sex is the highest-risk sexual behavior.
Training men who have sex with men to educate their peers on HIV prevention including providing prevention commodities such as condoms and lubricants, campaigning for better access to services, and linking people to MSM-friendly HIV services has been shown to effectively reach and engage this population and significantly reduce HIV transmission rates.
As of46 countries had regulatory approval for PrEP. Results suggest that there are other behavioural factors to consider, such as changes in mixing patterns within risk groups, use of smartphone dating applications, group sex, recreational drug use, and access to healthcare. Training and Technical Assistance for THRIVE strengthens the capacity of funded health departments and their collaborative partners to plan, implement, and sustain through ongoing engagement, assessment, linkage, and retention comprehensive prevention, care, behavioral health, and social services models for gay and bisexual men of color at risk for and living with HIV infection. For example, an HIV self-test kit vending machine designed with the input of gay men has been installed at various gay venues in the UK, including saunas, bars, clubs, pharmacies, university campuses and train stations.
In extremely rare cases, HIV has been transmitted by Oral sex—putting the mouth on the penis fellatiovagina cunnilingusor anus rimming.